Z-100 is an extract of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain Aoyama B, which contains various polysaccharides. Aoyama B has previously been shown to induce a T helper 1-type cytokine response in various murine oncological models and has also demonstrated inhibitory activity against HIV-1 in vitro. This multicentre study primarily determined the safety of Z-100 in early HIV-1-infected patients who were treatment naive; were treatment experienced, but had elected to discontinue highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) 8 weeks or longer before the study; or were stable on their first or second HAART regimen for at least 12 weeks before the study. Thirty-two individuals participated in this study and self-injected either placebo, 20 microg or 40 microg Z-100 twice a week for 8 weeks. Z-100 was well tolerated and the safety profiles of the Z-100 treatment groups were not meaningfully different compared with the placebo group. Plasma levels of HIV-1 RNA were not statistically significantly different in any treatment group at the end of the treatment period. There were no statistically significant differences among the treatment groups in the change from baseline to week 8 for any of the biological endpoints including plasma levels of HIV-1 RNA; CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts; levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 1; soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1; C-reactive protein; interleukin-6; and granulocyte colony stimulating factor. Consequently, this trial demonstrates the safety of Z-100 in HIV-1 infected patients without evidence of any activity at the doses administered.

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